Pyrography is the art of decorating wood or other materials with burn marks resulting from the controlled application of a heated object such as a poker. It is also known as pokerwork or wood burning.
Pyrography means “writing with fire”, from the Greek “pur” (fire) and “graphos” (writing). It can be practiced using specialised modern pyrography tools, or using a metal implement heated in a fire, or even sunlight concentrated with a magnifying lens.
A large range of range of tones and shades can be achieved. Varying the type of tip used, the temperature, or the way the iron is applied to the material all create different effects. After the design is burned in, wooden objects are often coloured. Light-coloured hardwoods such as sycamore, basswood, beech and birch are most commonly used, as their fine grain is not obtrusive. However, other woods, such as pine or oak, are also used.
Pyrography is also applied to leather items, using the same hot-iron technique. Leather lends itself to bold designs, and also allows very subtle shading to be achieved. Specialist vegetable-tanned leather must be used for pyrography, (as modern tanning methods leave chemicals in the leather which are toxic when burned) typically in light colours for good contrast.
The art form dates back to prehistory, when early humans created designs using the charred remains of their fires. It was known in China from the time of the Han dynasty, where it was known as “Fire Needle Embroidery”.
During the Victorian era, the invention of pyrography machines sparked a widespread interest in the craft, and it was at this time that the term “pyrography” was coined (previously the name “pokerwork” had been most widely used) In the late 19th century, a Melbourne architect by the name of Alfred Smart discovered that water-based paint could be applied hot to wood by pumping benzoline fumes through a heated hollow platinum pencil. This improved the pokerwork process by allowing the addition of tinting and shading that were previously impossible. In the early 20th century, the development of the electric pyrographic hot wire wood etching machine further automated the pokerwork process. Pyrography is a traditional folk art in many European countries, including Romania, Hungary, as well as countries such as Argentina in South America.
I fit in to the History of Pyrography in 2000. I have always enjoyed drawing and shading and spotted a basic phrography kit in a craft shop and though I’d give it a go. I seemed to do alright and decided to upgrade my equipment to give me an easier time and a wider scope.
Traditional pyrography can be performed using any heated metal implement. Modern pyrography machines exist, and can be divided into two main categories.
Solid-point burners are similar in design to a soldering iron. They have a solid brass tip which is heated by an electrical element, and operate at a fixed temperature.
Wire-nib burners have variable temperature controls. The writing nib is heated by an electrical current passing directly through it. Some models have interchangeable nibs to allow for different effects.
The technique I use is the solid point as I find it just right for what I hope to achieve.